Learn English Grammar Tense Part-2

Types of present tense 

In our last article we got introduce with tense and the types of tense. We also get a glimpse of present tense. Now in this article we will get to about types of present tense thoroughly.  

As we know present isn’t just a single moment of time so also in present tense we discuss about a period of time. A time happening right now, continuing to happen now, what just happened and happened something in the past but still relevant now. So, in this way we find four types of present tense. They are 

  1. Present Indefinite Tense (simple present tense) 
  2. Present continues Tense (present progressive) 
  3. Present perfect Tense 
  4. Present perfect continues Tense 

Present Indefinite Tense (simple present tense) 

Present indefinite tense indicates an action in the present time or habitual truth or internal truth. Any action that that happening now or happens regularly is present indefinite. Like: I read a book  

                             The sun rises in the east (eternal)  

                             I don’t like to quarrel (habitual) 

                              She prefers tea to coffee (habitual) 

                             Water freezes at 00 centigrade (eternal) 

                              The love to play football. 

As we see in these examples, the grammatical structure of present indefinite is  

Subject + verb(s/es) + predicate. 

Present continues Tense (present progressive) 

Present continuous tense is used when an action is continued or going to be continued in near future. This tense is also use when the action is temporary currently in progress. Present continues can be used to show that something is happening and going to happen in near future. An action which is being repeated is also present continues tense. In those cases, words like always, constantly, forever is used. Another use of this tense is when talking about planed event in the future. All these cases the tense will be Present continues Tense (present progressive)  

The grammatical structure of Present continues Tense (present progressive) is 

Subject + auxiliary verb(am/is/are) + main verb(+ing) +predicate. 

Example: I am reading a book. 

               I am going to Khulna tonight  

               Trisha and Sara are always fighting.  

               Online shopping is growing in popularity nowadays. 

Note: The following verbs aren’t normally used in the continuous form. 

  1. Verbs of perception – see, hear, smell, notice, recognize  
  2. Verbs of appearing – appear, look, seem 
  3. Verbs of emotion – wish, want, love, desire, feel, like, hope, hate etc. 
  4. Verbs of thinking – think, suppose, trust, remember, forget, imagine etc. 

Present perfect Tense: 

Present perfect tense is used when the work has been done but its effect lasts. It indicates an action or situation that started in the past and continues in the present or an action performed during a period that has not yet finished. This part of present tense can also use when an action that completed in very recent past (also expressed by “just”) or in an action when mentioning time isn’t important.  

 Structure: subject + has/have + past participle form of verb + predicate 

Example: I have done the work  

                   I have had the same phone for 7 years  

                  I haven’t seen him today 

                  He has visited me frequently. 

                  Has he just left? 

                 He had read ‘War and peace’  

Present perfect continues Tense: 

Present perfect continues tense is the last type of present tense. Present perfect continues tense is used for an action which began at some time in the past and is still continuing. Present perfect continuous usually emphasize duration or the amount of the time that an action has been taking place or an action is continuing from past and yet not finished. 

 Structure: Subject + has been/have been + main verb(+ ing) + predicate  

 Example: I have been doing this work for three hours. 

                    I have been waiting for you for hours   

                     Recently, I have been feeling really sacred  

                    Muskan has been suffering from fever since Sunday last. 

                    He has been working here from 2010 

Note: Both (since and from) denote a point of time, not a space or period. But ‘since’ is preceded by a verb in some perfect tense, while “from” can be used with many form of tense. Another difference is that ‘since’ can be used only in reference to past time, whereas ‘from’ can be used for present and future tense. 

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